Hip-hop dance refers to street dance styles primarily performed to hip-hop music or that have evolved as part of hip-hop culture. It includes a wide range of styles primarily breaking, locking, and popping which were created in the 1970s and made popular by dance crews in the United States. The television show Soul Train and the 1980s films Breakin', Beat Street, and Wild Style showcased these crews and dance styles in their early stages; therefore, giving hip-hop mainstream exposure. The dance industry responded with a commercial, studio-based version of hip-hop—sometimes called new style—and a hip-hop influenced style of jazz dance called jazz-funk. Classically trained dancers developed these studio styles in order to create choreography from the hip-hop dances that were performed on the street. Because of this development, hip-hop dance is practiced in both dance studios and outdoor spaces.
African dance refers mainly to the dance of Sub-Saharan Africa, and more appropriately African dances because of the many cultural differences in musical and movement styles. These dances must be viewed in close connection with Sub-Saharan African music traditions and Bantu cultivation of rhythm. African dance utilizes the concept of polyrhythm as well as total body articulation. Dances teach social patterns and values and help people work, mature, praise. This class also includes Afro-Cuban dance instruction which focuses on the influence of the Cuban culture.
Salsa is characterized by vibrant, energetic hip swinging inflamed by an intense beat. It coalesced in the 1960s as a blending of Cuban mambo and Latin jazz infused with choreographic and stylistic imprints from Puerto Ricans living in New York City. In Colombia and Venezuela salsa gave expression and identity to the marginalized barrios of urban centres. Salsa dancers constantly manipulate and vary steps to create new ones, and competition becomes part of the fun. Salsa has broken the barriers of ethnicity and class to become the epitome of Latino pride and sentiment. By the 21st century, salsa was considered a world beat, a variety of music and dance performed throughout the world.